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What is an integrated circuit? What are the types and functions of integrated circuit chips?

Edit: Administrator Browse: Time: 2019-09-20

An integrated circuit is a miniature electronic component or part. If appropriate, use a certain process to interconnect the junction transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and other components and wiring required in a circuit, manufacture on a small or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then package In a tube and shell, it becomes a micro structure with the required circuit functions; the entire component over there has been structured as a whole, making the electronic components move towards micro-scale, low power consumption, intelligence and high reliability A big step. It is represented in the circuit by the letter "IC". The creators of integrated circuits were Jack Kilby (germanium (Ge) -based integrated circuits) and Robert Neuss (silicon (Si) -based integrated circuits). Most of today's semiconductor industry uses silicon-based integrated circuits.
The circuit is formed on a silicon substrate, and the circuit has at least one output / input pad. The fixed sealing ring is formed on the silicon substrate and surrounds the circuit and the output / input pad. The ground ring is formed between the silicon substrate and the output / input pads, and is electrically connected to the fixed sealing ring. As far as possible, care should be taken to place the ring on the silicon substrate and surround the output / input pads for electrical connection with the fixed sealing ring.


Figure 1-IC integrated circuit

Figure 1-IC integrated circuit


Integrated circuit introduction:
The integrated circuit has small size, light weight, few lead wires and solder joints, long life span, high reliability, good performance, etc., and low cost, which is convenient for large-scale production. It is widely used not only in electronic equipment such as radio cassette recorders, televisions, and computers used in the daily lives of workers and the masses, but also in military, communications, remote control and other fields. The use of integrated circuits to assemble electronic equipment can increase the density of assembly by dozens to thousands of times compared to junction transistors, and the stable working time of the equipment can be greatly improved.
Integrated circuit types :
Integrated circuits, also known as ICs, can be divided into three categories: analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and digital / analog integrated circuits according to their functions and structures.
Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals that vary in amplitude over time. For example, audio signals from semiconductor radios, tape signals from recorders, etc.), and their inputs The signal is proportional to the output signal. Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (referring to signals with discrete values in time and amplitude. For example, 3G mobile phones, digital cameras, computer CPUs, and digital television control and playback of thinking Audio signals and video file signals).
Integrated circuits can be divided into:
SSIC Small Scale Integrated circuits
MSIC Medium Scale Integrated circuits
LSIC Large Scale Integrated circuits
VLSIC Very Large Scale Integrated circuits
ULSIC Ultra Large Scale Integrated circuits
GSIC very large scale integrated circuits are also called very large scale integrated circuits or very large scale integrated circuits (Giga Scale IntegraTIon).
Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type. They are both digital integrated circuits.
The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complex and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, and STTL. The unipolar integrated circuit has a simple manufacturing process and low power consumption, which is convenient for making large-scale integrated circuits. The representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, and PMOS integrated circuits, which can be divided into TV integrated circuits and audio. Integrated circuits, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for electronic pianos, integrated circuits for communications, integrated circuits for cameras, remote control integrated circuits, language integrated circuits, alarms Integrated circuits and various application-specific integrated circuits.
Integrated circuits can be divided into standard universal integrated circuits and application-specific integrated circuits according to the application field.
According to the shape of the integrated circuit according to the shape can be divided into circular (metal case junction transistor package type, the same applies to high power), flat type (good stability, small size) and dual in-line type.


Figure 2-IC integrated circuit

Figure 2-IC integrated circuit


Integrated functions of integrated circuit chips:
1. Reduce the use of components. With the birth of integrated circuits, small-scale integrated circuits have reduced the number of intrinsically significant components, and have greatly improved the technology of scattered component parts.
2. Product quality and character can be effectively improved. Bringing all the components together not only reduces the interference of external electrical signals, but also greatly improves the circuit presets and increases the operating speed.
3. More convenient application. A function corresponds to a circuit, and a function is integrated into an integrated circuit. In this way, the corresponding integrated circuit can be applied to any function in future applications, which greatly facilitates the application.
An integrated circuit is a miniature electronic component or part. If appropriate, use a certain process to interconnect the junction transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, inductors and other components and wiring required in a circuit, and manufacture on a small or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates. It is then packaged in a tube and shell and becomes a micro-structure with the required circuit functions; the entire component over there has been structured as a whole, making electronic components move towards micro-scale, low power consumption and high reliability. A big step. Its English (integrated circuit) is represented by the letter "IC". Integrated circuit technology includes chip manufacturing technology and preset technology. It mainly shows experience in processing equipment, processing technology, packaging testing, mass production and preset innovation.

Figure 3-IC integrated circuit

Figure 3-IC integrated circuit

IC development trends:
The most advanced integrated circuits are the “cores” of microprocessors or multicore processors, which can control everything from a computer to a mobile phone to a digital microwave. Memory and ASICs are examples of other integrated circuit families and are very important for the modern information society. Although the cost of developing a complex integrated circuit is assumed to be very high, the cost of each IC is minimized when it is distributed to generally one million products. The performance of the IC is very high. Due to the short path brought by the small size, the low power thinking circuit can be applied at fast switching speeds.
Over the years, ICs have continued to evolve to smaller form factors, allowing more circuits to be packaged per chip. This increases the size and capacity of the simplest surface or object surface per unit, which can reduce costs and increase functionality-see Mole's Law, the number of junction transistors in integrated circuits doubles every two years. In short, as the overall size changes from large to small, almost the entire index has improved-unit cost and switching power consumption have dropped, and speed has increased. However, ICs that integrate nano-scale devices are not without problems, mainly leakage current. Because of this, the increase in speed and power consumption of the end user is very clear, and manufacturers are facing the acute challenge of using better geometry. This process and the improvements we hope for in the next few years are well described in the Semiconductor International Technology Roadmap (ITRS).
More and more circuits are exposed in the hands of presetters in the form of integrated chips, making the development of electronic circuits tend to be small-scale and high-speed. More and more applications have been transformed into simple digital thinking law integrated circuits through complex simulation circuits.

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